Oil & Gas

The Oil & Gas industry uses heat and steam in multiple upstream and downstream applications.  best dissertation

Enhanced Oil Recovery (abbreviated EOR) is an upstream application that increases the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field. Using EOR, 30-60%, or more, of the reservoir's original oil can be extracted.  Sopogy provides solar thermal energy that creates steam or heated water for EOR and other upstream applications, such as oil-gas-water separators.

Downstream from the oil field, refineries use large amounts of heat and steam to create fuel.  Refineries burn up to 13% of their own fuel production to make steam.  Solar steam can increase the overall market output of the refinery, while reducing fossil fuel emissions and helping the refinery meet or exceed air quality regulations.